Preprint and accepted


  • Lievens, E. 2022. Modified persistence (mP) assay.
  • Lievens, E. 2022. Modified one-step growth (mOSG) assay.
  • Lievens, E. 2022. Virion quantification by flow cytometry, without fixation or freezing.
  • del Arco, A. Woltermann, N. and L. Becks. 2020. Building up chemostats for experimental eco-evolutionary studies.


  • Lievens, E.J.P., Kühn, S., Horas, E.L., Le Pennec,G., Peter, S., Petrosky, A. D., Künzel,S., Feulner, P. G.D. and L. Becks. 2024. High parasite diversity maintained after an alga-virus coevolutionary arms race. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, voae053.
  • Hermann, R. J., Pantel, J.H., Réveillon, T. and L. Becks. Range of trait variation in prey determines evolutionary contributions to predator growth rates. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 37, 693–703.
  • Hermann, R. J. and L. Becks. Tracking the frequency of phytoplankton clonal lineages using multispectral image flow cytometry and neural networks. 2024. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5:401–412.
  • del Arco, A. Fischer, M. and L. Becks Evolution of virus and virophage facilitates persistence in a tripartite microbial system. 2024 Virus Evolution, 10.
  • Sathe, S. 2024. Greenbeard Mechanism and the Evolution of Cooperation. eLS, Vol 3: 1–8, 2024. 


  • Pantel, J. H. and L. Becks. 2023 Statistical methods to identify mechanisms in studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 38,  760-772.
  • Lievens, E.J.P., Agarkova, I., Dunigan, D.D., Van Etten, J. L. and L. Becks. 2023 Efficient assays to quantify the life history traits of algal viruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 89.
  • Le Pennec, G. Retel, C., Kowallik, V., Becks, L. and P.G.D. Feulner. 2023. Demographic fluctuations and selection during host–parasite co-evolution interactively increase genetic diversity. Molecular Ecology. First published: 30 March 2023. Guénolé Le Pennec and Cas Retel, as well as, Lutz Becks and Philine G. D. Feulner contributed equally to this work.
  • del Arco, A., Becks, L. and de Vicente, I. 2023. Population dynamics hide phenotypic changes driven by subtle chemical exposures: implications for risk assessments. Ecotoxicology, 32, 281–289.
  • Taucher, J., Lechtenbörger, A.K., Bouquet, J.M., Spisla, C., Boxhammer, T. Minutolo, F., Bach, L. T., Lohbeck, K.T., Sswat, M., Dörner, I., Ismar-Rebitz, S.M.H., Thompson, E.M. and U. Riebesell 2024 The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica can enhance carbon export in a high CO2 ocean. Global Change Biology, 30, e17020.
  • Kourtchenko, O., Lohbeck, K.T., Andersson, B., and  T. Rajala 2023. Diatom Growth: How to Improve the Analysis of Noisy Data in The Mathematical Biology of Diatoms.


  • Lievens, E., Spagnuolo, M. Réveillon and L. Becks. 2022. Delayed Lysis Time at High Multiplicities of Particles in a Chlorovirus-Chlorella Interaction. Microbes and Environments, 27, 5.
  • Hermann, R. J. and L. Becks. 2022. Change in prey genotype frequency rescues predator from extinction. Royal Society Open Science, 9, 220211.
  • Horas, E., Metzger, S. M., Platzer, B., Kelly, J.B. and L. Becks. 2022. Context-dependent costs and benefits of endosymbiotic interactions in a ciliate-algae system. Environmental Microbiology, 24, 5924-5935.
  • Retel, C., Kowallik, V., Becks, L. and P.G.D. Feulner 2022. Strong Selection and High Mutation Supply Characterize Experimental Chlorovirus Evolution. Virus Evolution, 8, veac003.
  • del Arco, A., Fischer, M. and L. Becks. 2022. Simultaneous Giant Virus and Virophage Quantification Using Droplet Digital PCR. Viruses, 14, 1056.
  • L. Becks and U. John 2022. Genomische Signaturen des Übergangs zur Mehrzelligkeit. BIOspektrum, 03.22, 269-271.


  •  Nowell RW, Wilson CG, Almeida P, Schiffer, P., Fontaneto, D., Becks, L., Rodriguez, F., Arkhipova, I. R. and T. Barraclough, 2021.Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in bdelloid rotifers. eLife, 10:e63194.
  • Cairns, J., Jousset, A., Becks, L. and T Hiltunen 2021. Effect of mutation supply on population dynamics and trait evolution in an experimental microbial community. Ecology Letters, 25, 355-265.
  • Bernardes, J.P., John, U., Woltermann, N., Valiadi, M., Hermann, R., and L. Becks. 2021. The evolution of convex trade-offs enables the transition towards multicellularity. Nature Communications, 12, 4222.


  • Zhang, Z., van Kleunen, M., Becks, L. and MP Thakur. 2020. Towards a general understanding of bacterial interactions. Trends in Microbiology.
  • Cairns, J., Jokela, R., Becks, L., Mustonen, V. and T. Hiltunen 2020 Repeatable ecological dynamics govern the response of experimental communities to antibiotic pulse perturbation. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 4, 1385–1394.
  • Koch, H., Wagner, S. and L. Becks. 2020. Antagonistic species interaction drives selection for sex in a predator–prey system. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 33, 1180-1191.


  •  Retel, C., Kowallik, V., Huang, W., Werner, B., Künzel, S., Becks, L. and P. Feulner. 2019. The feedback between selection and demography shapes genomic diversity during coevolution. Science Advances, Vol. 5, eaax0530. (L. Becks and P. Feulner equal contribution)
  • Theodosiou, L., Hiltunen, T. and L. Becks. 2019. The role of stressors in altering eco-evolutionary dynamics. Functional Ecology, 33, 73-83.
  • Scheuerl, T., Cairns, J., Becks, L.. and T. Hiltunen. 2019. Predator coevolution and prey trait variability determine species coexistence. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286, 20190245
  • Retel, C. Märkle, H., Becks, L.. and P. Feulner. 2019.Ecological and evolutionary processes shaping viral genetic diverstiy. Viruses, 11, 220. (L. Becks and P. Feulner equal contribution
  • Näpflin K., O’Connor E.A., Becks, L., Bensch S,. Ellis V.A., Hafer-Hahmann N., Harding K.C., Lindén S.K., Olsen M.T., Roved J., Sackton T.B., Shultz A.J., Venkatakrishnan V., Videvall E., Westerdahl H., Winternitz J.C., and S. V. Edwards 2019. Genomics of host-pathogen interactions: challenges and opportunities across ecological and spatiotemporal scales. PeerJ, 7:e8013.
  • Becks, L.and M. Milinski. 2019. Extortion strategies resist disciplining when higher competitiveness is rewarded with extra gain. Nature Communications, 10, 783. 



  •  Hiltunen, T., J. Cairns, J. Frickel, M. Jalasvuori, J. Laakso, V. Kaitala, S. Künzel, E. Karakoc, and L. Becks. 2018. Dual-stressor selection alters eco-evolutionary dynamics in experimental communities. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2, 1974–1981.
  • Horas, E., Theodosiou, L. and L. Becks. 2018. Why Are Algal Viruses Not Always Successful? Viruses, 10, 474.
  • Frickel, J., Feulner, G.D., Karakoc, E.and L. Becks, 2018. Population size changes and selection drive patterns of parallel evolution in a host–virus system. Nature Communications, 9, 1706.


  •  Huang et al., Traulsen, A., Werner, B., Hiltunen, T. and L. Becks. 2017. Dynamical trade-offs arise from antagonistic coevolution and decrease intraspecific diversity. Nature Communications, 8, 2059.
  • Frickel, J., Theodosiou, L. and L. Becks, 2017. Rapid evolution of hosts begets species diversity at the cost of intraspecific diversity. PNAS, 114, 11193-11198.
  • Hiltunen, T., Kaitala, V., Laakso, J. and L. Becks, 2017. Evolutionary contribution to coexistence of competitors in microbial food webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 284, 20170415.
  • Ehrlich, E., Becks, L. and U. Gaedke, 2017, Trait-fitness relationships determine how trade-off shapes affect species coexistence. Ecology, 98, 3188-3198.
  • Cairns, J., Frickel, J., Jalasvuori, M., Hiltunen, T. and L. Becks, 2017. Genomic evolution of bacterial populations under co-selection by antibiotics and phage. Molecular Ecology, 26, 1848-1859.
  • Koch, H. and L. Becks. 2017. The cost of facultative sex in a prey adapting to predation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 30, 210-220.
  • Cairns, J., Becks, L., Jalasvuori, M. and T. Hiltunen, 2017. Sublethal streptomycin concentrations and lytic bacteriophage interactively promote resistance evolution. Philosophical Transactions B, 372, 20160040.


  •  Haafke, J., Abou Chakra, M. and L. Becks, 2016. Eco-evolutionary feedback promotes Red Queen dynamics and selects for sex in predator populations. Evolution, 70, 641-652.
  • Frickel, J., Sieber, M. and L. Becks, 2016. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in a coevolving host-virus system. Ecology Letters, 19, 450-459.



  •  Hiltunen, T. and L. Becks, 2014. Consumer co-evolution as an important component of the eco-evolutionary feedback. Nature Communications, 5, 5226.
  • Koch, H., Frickel, J., Valiadi, M. and L. Becks, 2014. Why rapid, adaptive evolution matters for community dynamics. Frontiers in Ecololgy and Evolution, 2, 17.

before 2014

  • Becks, L. and A.F. Agrawal, 2013. Higher rates of sex evolve under K-selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26, 900-905.
  • Becks, L. and H. Arndt, 2013. Different types of synchrony in chaotic and cyclic communities. Nature Communications, 4, 1359.
  • Becks, L. and A.F. Agrawal, 2012. The evolution of sex is favoured during adaptation to new environments. PLoS Biology ,10, e1001317.
  • Becks, L., S.P. Ellner, Jones, L. E. and N.G. Hairston Jr., 2012. The functional genomics of an eco-evolutionary feedback loop: linking gene expression, trait evolution, and community dynamics. Ecology Letters, 15, 492-501.
  • Becks, L. and A.F. Agrawal, 2011. The effect of sex on the mean and variance of fitness in facultatively sexual rotifers. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 24, 656-664.
  • Ellner, S.P. and L. Becks, 2011. Rapid prey evolution in response to two predators. Theoretical Ecology, 4, 133-15.
  • Becks, L. and A.F. Agrawal, 2010. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Nature, 468, 89-92.
  • Becks, L., S.P. Ellner, Jones, L. E. and N.G. Hairston Jr. 2010. Reduction of adaptive genetic diversity radically alters eco-evolutionary community dynamics. Ecology Letters, 13, 989–997.
  • Jones, L. E., Becks, L., Ellner, S.P., Hairston Jr. N.G., Yoshida,T. and G. Fussmann. 2009. Rapid contemporary evolution and clonal food web dynamics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 364, 1579-1591.
  • Becks, L.and H. Arndt. 2008. Transitions from stable equilibria to chaos, and back, in an experimental food web. Ecology, 89, 3222-3226.
  • Becks, L., Hilker, F., Malchow. H., Jürgens, K. and H. Arndt. 2005. Experimental demonstration of chaos in a microbial food web. Nature, 435, 1226-1229.

On the evolution of sex:

On eco-evolutionary dynamics